Kidneys are vital to having a wholesome healthy body. They are mainly responsible for filtering waste products, excess water, and other different type of impurities out of the blood. These toxins are stored in the bladder and then removed during urination. The kidneys also regulate pH, salt, and potassium levels in the body. They produce hormones that regulate blood pressure and control the production of red blood cells. The kidneys even activate a form of vitamin D that helps the body absorb calcium.
10 % of the world’s population suffers from chronic kidney diseases. Millions of these affected people die every year due to unfortunate fact of not having access to affordable treatment. In 2017, CKD resulted in 1.2 million deaths and was the 12th leading cause of death worldwide Unfortunately, kidney diseases have not received as much public attention as the extent of the problem deserves. The exact numbers suffering from chronic kidney diseases are not published by concerned health departments in India. In India 800 per million populations is affected by Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and 200 – 300 per million populations are effected by End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) approximately. The exact numbers suffering from Chronic kidney diseases and End Stage Renal Disease is unknown as negligible data has been published so far. The CKD registry, established by the Indian Society of Nephrology, will be hopefully useful to provide data in future. The most common form of kidney disease is chronic kidney disease. Kidney stones are another common kidney problem. Glomerulonephritis, Polycystic kidney disease, Urinary tract infections, are some of the other common diseases that affect our kidneys. However, if left untreated, these infections can spread to the kidneys and cause kidney failure.
Chronic kidney disease is a long-term condition that doesn’t improve over time. India has seen a significant increase in prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease. It is currently one of the most commonly occurring non-communicable diseases in India High blood pressure is considered the common cause of chronic kidney disease. High blood pressure increasing the pressure on the glomeruli (the tiny blood vessels in the kidney where blood is cleaned) is dangerous for the kidneys. Over a prolonged period of time, the increased pressure damages these vessels and kidney function begins to decline. The function of kidney is eventually impaired to the point where kidneys aren’t able to perform their job properly. In this case, a person would need to go on dialysis. Dialysis filters extra fluid and waste out of the blood. Dialysis can help treat kidney disease but it can’t cure it. A kidney transplant may be another treatment option depending on various circumstances. In population based studies the other most common cause of the chronic kidney disease is diabetes. Diabetes is a set of illnesses that reasons excessive blood sugar. Over time, the increased level of sugar in the blood damages the blood vessels present in the kidneys. Therefore, the kidneys are not able to clean the blood properly which eventually results in kidney failure due to overload of toxins in the blood. Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. Diet, excess body weight, some medical conditions, and certain supplements and medications are among the many causes of kidney stones. Kidney stones can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they’re recognized in a timely fashion. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli. Glomeruli are extremely small structures inside the kidneys that filter the blood. Cause of glomerulonephritis can be infections, drugs, or congenital abnormalities (disorders that occur during or shortly after birth). It often gets better on its own. Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder that causes numerous cysts (small sacs of fluid) to grow in the kidneys. These cysts can interfere with kidney function and cause renal failure. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are bacterial infections of any part of the urinary system. Infections in the bladder and urethra are the most common. They are easily treatable and rarely lead to more health problems. However, if left untreated, these infections can spread to the kidneys and cause kidney failure.
Kidney disease is a condition that can easily go unnoticed until the symptoms become severe. Some of the common symptoms include fatigue – a feeling of tiredness ,feeling cold – feeling cold when even in a warm room ,shortness of breath – even when there is no great physical exertion, feeling faint, dizzy – anaemia caused due to kidney failure leads to the brain not getting sufficient oxygen, and this can cause dizziness or weakness, inability to think clearly – the brain not getting enough oxygen can lead to memory problems or trouble with concentration, itchiness – kidney failure causes the build-up of wastes in the blood, and this can cause severe itching, swelling in the hands or the feet – kidney failure leads to excess fluid build-up in the body, causing swelling in the legs, ankles, feet, and hands, swollen or puffy face – excess fluid build-up causes swelling in the face, Upset stomach, nausea, vomiting – due to severe build-up of wastes in the blood (uremia) ,frequent urination – particularly at night; there may be pressure or difficulty in urinating, brown, red, or purple urine – the urine may contain blood. Diabetes – a major risk factor for kidney disease. Diabetes may damage nerves, and this can cause difficulty in emptying the bladder. The pressure from a full bladder can injure the kidneys, or cause an infection. High blood pressure is also the risk factor for kidney diseases. Patients with heart diseases are also at higher risks of developing kidney disease.
Manage Blood Sugar Level, Blood sugar levels can be influenced by several factors, including those out of a person’s control such as hormones, illness, or stress. Over time, high blood sugar levels can cause blood vessels inside the kidney to become narrow and clogged and can cause damage to the blood vessels and harm the kidneys. If you have diabetes, the best way to protect your kidneys is to positively influence your blood sugar levels as best you can. Your treatment plan may include changes to your diet, exercise, and medicine to lower your blood sugar levels.
Manage Blood pressure, High blood pressure is risk factor for kidney disease and can damage your kidneys and increase your chances of getting kidney disease. If your blood pressure remains high, your doctor may have you take medicine. Making simple tweaks to your lifestyle, including lifestyle changes, to prevent or control high blood pressure. Eating a diet that is rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products and skimps on saturated fat and cholesterol can lower your blood pressure, include citrus foods in your diet and avoid salt, red meat, pizzas, pickles, canned soups, fatty and sugary products. And here in Kashmir totally avoid salted tea as morning tea or have it on alternative days. It is important to get your blood pressure checked regularly – at least once every 6 months for most healthy adults, and more often if you have high blood pressure.
Eat a healthy diet, a healthy diet plan, such as the Mediterranean Diet and the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet, can help lower blood pressure and blood lipids (fat in the blood). These eating plans include fresh fruits and vegetables, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, and nuts. They also have less sodium, sugars, fats, and red meats.
Exercise, it can help you keep a healthy weight, control blood pressure and cholesterol, build strength and endurance, and lower your chances of getting diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and kidney disease. There are many types of exercises that can help you stay healthy including, household chores, playing a sport, or aerobic exercise (swimming, biking, climbing stairs, or hiking). The people can hit gym daily or engage themselves in morning or evening walks and jogging.
Limit alcohol and Avoid smoking, drinking too much alcohol can raise your blood pressure. It also adds extra calories, which may cause weight gain. Both of those raise your risk of kidney disease. Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and puts you at higher risk for kidney disease and heart diseases. If you do not smoke, don’t start at any price. If you do smoke, quitting will lower your risk for kidney disease. You can talk with your health care provider for help in finding the best way for you to quit. Don’t let anyone smoke near your atleast radius of 1 metre.
Do not overuse pain medicines, using too much pain medicines called NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen) may cause kidney disease. Long-term use of NSAIDs, especially at high doses, reduces the blood flow to the kidney which causes harm to kidney tissue.
Lack of specialist medicos, proper machines, and costly treatment is one of the serious issues faced in current times in management of kidney diseases. Kashmir is seeing rise in kidney diseases from last decade due to lack of machines and specialist medicos has led to the increase in toll of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients in Kashmir while as the experts said, blood pressure, sugar, smoking, taking less fluid and use of pain killers are the main reasons behind the kidney failures. Government must pay their heed towards establishing more and enough infrastructure of hospitals, machines in union territory to manage and treat kidney disease affected people. Government should build enough public gyms and parks in rural areas as a centre of attraction and motivating force to indulge more people in daily exercises. People must be properly awared about kidney diseases and their effective preventive measures. Health camps must be installed in Kashmir to provide medical assistance to patients of kidney diseases.